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January 2008

More Protein Key to Preserving

Lean Mass for Dieter

Dr. Wayne Campbell, an associate professor in the Department of Foods and Nutrition has shown that including more protein in a reduced calorie diet can help people retain lean body mass while losing weight. “Many dieters don’t realize that they are actually losing much more than fat,” he said. “Lean body mass includes everything in your body that is not fat, such as water and muscle. Muscle burns more calories. The more muscle you retain, the easier it becomes to low weight and keep it off.”

Dr. Campbell with patient Forty-six women between the ages of 28 and 80 completed the study by consuming 750 fewer calories than their normal daily intake for 12 weeks. The women were grouped by normal or higher protein intake, with the higher protein group obtaining 30 percent of its calories from protein. Participants in this group consumed 40 percent of their daily protein intake from pork, including Canadian bacon, lean cuts of ham and pork loin. Forty-five percent of the remainder of their daily calories came from carbohydrates and 25 percent came from fat.

Those in the normal protein category consumed 18 percent of their daily calories from protein, which is comparable to the recommended dietary allowance suggested by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The normal protein group ate food from non-meat protein sources including milk, eggs, cheese, yogurt and beans. The remainder of their daily calories consisted of 57 percent carbohydrates and 25 percent fat.

The women were classified as either pre-obese, having a body mass index of 26 to 29.9 kilograms of weight per meter of height squared, or obese, with body mass index readings between 30 and 37.

 While all the women lost about 18 pounds over the course of the study, the higher protein group retained nearly double the amount of lean body mass, losing just 1.5 kilograms or 3.3 pounds of lean mass. The normal protein group, in contrast, lost 2.8 kilograms, or nearly 6.2 pounds of lean mass.

 The preservation of lean body mass was more pronounced in the pre-obese women as compared with the obese women. The pre-obese group lost 1.2 kilograms, or about 2.6 pounds of lean body mass, while the obese women lost 2.9 kilograms or almost 6.4 pounds of lean mass. The results suggest that eating a higher-protein diet and losing weight before becoming obese can better preserve lean body mass. 

Campbell said the higher protein meal plan, which included about 6 ounces of lean pork over the course of a day, helped dieters achieve their weight loss goals because of its balanced offerings.

 “This is a very doable diet, with a shift toward a moderately higher protein content," he said. "The protein comes from low-fat sources. You could not reasonably incorporate bacon or sausage into this and have it work."

 Other major findings of the study include:

  • Women in the higher protein group reported feeling full longer after a meal and throughout the day, which could help dieters stay true to their weight loss plans longer.
  • "When you think about the ability of people to be successful with weight loss, how hungry they become determines whether or not they cheat," Campbell said
  • The higher protein group rated themselves more positively in terms of overall mood and feelings of pleasure while on the restricted calorie diet. "This is also a factor in success," Campbell said. "While each person rated their individual feelings, a better mood and higher pleasure readings could help subjects persevere in their weight loss goals."
  • Normal indicators of kidney function and cardiovascular health were comparable between both groups. "Eating more protein from lean meat sources appears to be a safe and effective way to reduce body weight while bringing about beneficial changes in body composition," Campbell said. The National Pork Board provided primary support for the study. Wyeth Consumer Healthcare donated multivitamins for participant consumption.

Dr. Campbell is currently expanding his work by researching the effects of a higher protein intake from lean pork and eggs on overweight and obese males. That study also is examining the effects of the timing of when meals are offered to subjects on the overall results.

F&N 303 Goes Online

Food and Nutrition’s introductory course for non-majors, F&N 303, in now available online.  Like the on-campus version, F&N instructors for course303Y is already bursting at the seams.  With more than 480 students vying for space on campus each semester, one can only predict how many more might eventually take this course online in future semesters.  In the future it will also be available to students outside Purdue University.

Last year, Foods and Nutrition faculty were approached by the Continuing Education Division to consider developing an online version of the course due to its popularity on campus.  A major driving force was the large number of students who took an online course from another institution prior to our online course being available. 

After considering the potential benefit to students, and options in how to develop an online course, F & N faculty decided we’d accept the challenge.  Rather than having one person shoulder the responsibility, course development was undertaken by a team of F&N faculty members.  Barb Mayfield coordinated the efforts and was assisted by Tianhong Shi, the instructional designer with CE.  The on-campus instructors, Jay Burgess, Rachel Clark, and Donna Zoss, were all involved in writing modules and developing the course structure and content.  The team worked throughout the summer and fall to complete the task. The team would all agree that they were glad the task was shared and no one tried to accomplish it alone!!

This semester’s online and on campus instructor is Jay Burgess.  The class will follow a very similar syllabus to the on campus version, but new features such as online discussion groups and the second project being done as a group project online are going into uncharted territory.  Challenges such as “technical difficulties” are anticipated as they are inherent in any new venture. For more information about F&N 303Y contact Barb Mayfield at: mayfielb@purdue.edu.


No Bones About It!

Health professionals and educators throughout the U.S. are concerned about the lack of a balanced diet among children in their formative years. A poor diet, and particularly a lack of calcium, in these important growth years can have serious consequences in the rates of osteoporosis, a dangerous and potentially crippling disease, in adulthood and advancing age.
No Bones About It curriculum
No BONES About It is a bone health awareness program created by leading health professionals, researchers, educators, and curriculum developers at eight universities to address these concerns.  Dr. Carol Boushey, Associate Professor in the Foods and Nutrition Department, played a lead role in developing the program.  The program is a behavior-changing series of six lessons presented on DVD and CD designed to inspire early teens to become lifelong consumers of calcium-rich foods. To achieve enduring change, the series uses:

  • High drama
  • Information gathering, analysis, synthesis, and application
  • Reinforcing games
  • Reflection
  • Personal commitment
  • Commitment testing

No BONES About It supplements and enhances existing science and health programs, and all content is in line with national science and health education standards.

To reach adolescents, it is necessary to remember their limited perception of time and aging. They have difficulty comprehending how their eating habits or anything they do or don’t do today, could have serious consequences in a future that, to them, is both distant and incomprehensible.

No BONES About It deals with this through a story line on a DVD in which three children have to cope with their foster mother’s falling and breaking a hip, an event potentially devastating to their life situation. As the children work to gain an understanding of what happened and why, they learn of their own susceptibility to osteoporosis and how to safeguard their health and grow up with strong bones. They’re guided by a physician — a bone and nutrition specialist who is creating a bone health awareness program herself. The story line and the interactions created by the doctor form the basis of the No BONES About It program.

The six No BONES About It sessions can be integrated into the classroom throughout a semester or an entire school year. The authors recommend a gap of at least one or two weeks between each session.

Each session consists of a live action story on the DVD, an interactive portion, a cliffhanger that foreshadows the continuation of the live action story, and a reflection to be completed by the students. The cliffhangers and reflections are designed to allow weeks between each session without loss of continuity and information retention. Related computer games on a CD reinforce the information presented in the interactive portion. Each session requires 50 to 60 minutes to complete. For more information about No Bones About It visit www.ces.purdue.edu/nobones.

Foods & Nutrition Department
Stone Hall, Room 213
700 West State Street
West Lafayette, IN

Phone: (765) 494-8228
Fax: (765) 494-0674

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