James (Jim) R. Daniel, PhD
Foods and Nutrition
700 W. State Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059
Phone: (765) 494-8247
Fax: (765) 494-0906
- Ph.D. in Chemistry at Texas A&M University in 1977
Dissertation Title: The Synthesis and Characterization of Some Dimethylarsinous Acid Esters of Thio- and Selenogalactose
Certificates and Licenses
- R.D.: 2000
Awards and Honors
- 2003 Mary L. Matthews Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching, School of Consumer and Family Sciences
- 2009 Teaching Academy, Purdue University Teaching Academy
In the sweetener area, a series of amides of 1-amino-1-deoxy-D-glucitol and 1-deoxy-1-methylamino-D-glucitol was prepared. These potential sweeteners had an increased hydrophobicity compared to D-glucitol and also fitted the Tinti-Nofre model for sweetness. The syntheses were so designed as to be able to be carried out without sequential blocking and deblocking of the carbohydrate intermediates. In spite of the fit of these target molecules to the Tinti-Nofre model, none of the products had an exalted level of sweetness.
Inulin has been proposed as a fat replacer in systems that contain starch but little is known about the fundamental interactions of starch and inulin. A set of experiments was carried out to determine the effect of added inulin, in gels containing different starch concentrations and inulin:starch ratios, on texture and stability of starch gels stored at 5 degrees C and –10 degrees C, as a function of time. The results of these experiments suggest that it may be possible to determine the optimum level of inulin to incorporate into starch-based puddings or other systems containing starch, such as baked goods, so that the physical properties like texture are not significantly affected.
In another set of experiments Raftilose, a trade name for a low molecular weight oligofructose, was used as a sucrose replacer in muffins. Raftilose was used to replace 15% of the sucrose in the original muffin recipe. This set of experiments also examined the ability of Raftilose to be used as a browning enhancer and anti-staling agent in baked goods. A sensory panel was conducted to determine the subjective qualities of the muffins and the TA.XT2 Texture Analyzer was used to determine the objective firmness. The data from this set of experiments shows an expected decrease in apparent sweetness with the Raftilose muffin, since Raftilose has a sweetness level less of that of sucrose. Muffin toughness also increases with time, but by less with the Raftilose muffin when compared to the sucrose control. With further research Raftilose may be more often considered as an effective sucrose replacer and anti-firming agent.
Another study was carried out to determine the extent to which low molecular weight inulin (LMWI) can replace sucrose in a reduced fat frozen dessert. Substitution of LMWI for sugar causes changes in the texture and taste of the product. Replacing 50% of sugar with LMWI decreased sweetness and vanilla intensity. Substitution of LMWI for sugar (30%, 40% and 50%) increased chewiness and reduced iciness. No significant color difference between the experimental samples and control were noted. Texture of the test samples was softer than the control after freezing for 48 hours. LMWI substitution at 40% appears to be the optimum substitution level because this sample was most similar to the control. Electron microscopy showed differences in sizes of air cells, fat globules and ice crystals. The control had smaller air cells, larger fat globules and smaller ice crystals. These differences were not significant enough to affect the texture and taste of the products. LMWI can be used as a sugar replacer in reduced fat ice cream due to its ability to provide similar functionality as sugar. Utilization of inulin oligosaccharides in frozen desserts has two primary benefits, reduction of sucrose calories and incorporation of a dietary fiber source that has beneficial effects on blood cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratios.
Low carbohydrate foods and ingredients have been attracting much attention. The effect of these non-carbohydrate or low-digestibility carbohydrate materials on starch gelatinization and their use in baked goods was investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of xylitol, soy protein isolate (SPI), inulin, and resistant starch (RS) on cooking properties of corn starch and to determine the feasibility of preparing a muffin containing these ingredients replacing 50% of the flour and 50% of the sucrose.
RVA analysis was carried out in the standard way except that xylitol, SPI, inulin, or RS was added as well. Control muffins were prepared by a standard recipe. Test muffins had 50% of the flour replaced with soy isolate (20%), inulin (20%) and resistant starch (10%). Muffins were stored for 5 days and texture, water activity, and color measurements were taken. Texture of products was determined by using the TA.XT2 Texture Analyzer. A Decagon Aqualab CX-2 instrument was used to measure water activity. Color was measured using a Hunter colorimeter. RVA experiments showed that increasing amounts of soy isolate, xylitol, or resistant starch increased the peak, hold and final viscosities. Inulin showed the opposite behavior, that is, a decrease in peak and final viscosities but little effect on hold viscosity with increasing inulin concentration. Texture values for control and test muffins were not statistically different at any time point and water activity was only statistically significantly different at day 2. Hunter L (31.7 vs 22.6), a (15.2 vs 11.6), and b (15.0 vs 9.2) values were highly significantly different between the control and test muffin. It is clear that non-carbohydrate or low-digestibility carbohydrate ingredients affect starch gelatinization and this must be taken into account in formulating baked goods. The interesting effect of inulin requires further investigation. Muffins containing 50% less flour and sucrose can be formulated which are not significantly different in texture or water activity from the control muffin. The test muffins are however significantly darker and variations in cooking time may be required to produced a muffin closer in appearance to the control.
Discovery Publications (selected)
Nelson Barber ,Joe Scarcelli , Barbara A. Almanza , and James R. Daniel, Silicone Bakeware: Does it deliver a better product?, Journal of Foodservice, incorporating food service technology and foodservice research, 18: 43-51, 2007.
E. Malinski, J. R. Daniel, X. X. Zhang, and R. L Whistler, “Isolation of Small Starch Granules and Determination of Their Fat Mimetic Characteristics”, Cereal Chem., 80, 1-4 2003.
Books, Chapters, and Monographs Publications
J. R. Daniel, Yuan Yao and Connie M. Weaver, “Carbohydrates: Functional Properties”, in Food Chemistry: Principles and Applications, 2nd ed., Y. H. Hui (ed.), STS Technology System, West Sacramento, CA, 5-1 to 5-26 (2007).
K. G. Tomazi, A. A. Linninger, and J. R. Daniel, "Batch Processing Industries", in Batch Processes, E. Korovessi and A. A. Linninger (eds), Taylor and Francis, 7-39. 2006.
C. M. Weaver and J. R. Daniel, “The Food Chemistry Laboratory: A Manual for Experimental Foods, Dietetics, and Food Scientists”, CRC Press, 2003.
J. R. Daniel, “Starch” in E. S. Wilks (ed.), Industrial Polymers Handbook-Products, Processes, Applications, Volume 4, Part III. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 227-2264 ,2001.
J. R. Daniel and Connie M. Weaver, “Carbohydrates: Functional Properties”, in Food Chemistry: Principles and Applications, G. L Christen and J. Scott Smith (eds.), STS Technology System, West Sacramento, CA, 55-78 ,2000.
Experience in Food Preparation (F&N 20201) - Application of chemical, physical, microbiological and nutritional principles in food preparation.
Food Chemistry (F&N/FS 45300) - Application of fundamental laws and concepts of chemistry, physics, and biology to the properties, composition, and storage of foods.
Carbohydrates (F&N 63000) - Carbohydrates with an emphasis on those of low molecular weight in foods. Structures, reactions, and properties of mono- and oligosaccharides. Introduction to polysaccharides and food gums.
Foods: Principles of Food Preparation and Nutrition (F&N 20200) - Chemical, physical, microbiological and nutritional principles of food preparation. Functions and sources of nutrients, their relationship to a healthy lifestyle and incorporating the benefits into marketing of foodservice.